Globalisation and invasive alien species in the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions – management challenges and regional cooperation
Globalisation, in the context of biological invasions, is the increased movement of species, both intentional and unintentional, around the world. This happens through different vectors and pathways related to trade, tourism, transport, including shipping, corridors, etc. Introduction and establishment of the invasive alien species (IAS) is one of the most significant threats to biological diversity, in addition to their adverse ecological, social and economic impact. There are several instruments developed and applied to manage introduction pathways and to mitigate the impact of already established and widespread IAS at global, EU, regional and national levels, e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity, Ballast Water Management Convention, EU Regulation 1143/2014 on IAS, and EU Strategy for the Danube Region. However, managing IAS, especially in coastal and marine environments, poses many challenges, such as early detection of their presence, assessment of their impact, selection and application of effective measures.